controlled mining in China and gradually also abroad. • Government's control over the Chinese mining companies is slowly declining with growing private interests and market inﬂ uences but will remain strong for many years. • State control of reﬁ ning is higher than in mining. This is probably due to the higher value added in this sector.
China began mining the minerals on a mass scale in the mid 1980s, and after nearly two decades of lax environmental regulation has only recently begun to address their noxious legacy. Seven years ago, China began restricting and taxing its rare earths exports, ostensibly to improve its environmental record.
manufacturer in China, is located in Henan Province at Sanmenxia City, about 1,000 km south west of Beijing. The refinery, part of China National Gold Group Corporation (CNGGC), is a subsidiary of China Gold Co Ltd(Zhongjin Gold Co Ltd), which is headquartered in the Dongcheng district of Beijing.